风云体育(中国)风云有限公司

新(xin)闻资讯

联系我们

内页侧边联系

发布时间:2020-05-20 00:00:00

公司:风云体育

电话: 

E-mail:

地址:四川(chuan)攀枝花(hua)钒(fan)钛高新技术产业园(yuan)区钛源大道18号

/
/
/
国(guo)内铸造业(ye)节能技术应用及发展建议(yi)

国内铸造业节能技术应用及发展建议

  • 分类:知识学堂
  • 作者:
  • 来(lai)源:
  • 发布时(shi)间:2020-05-21
  • 访问量:0

【概要(yao)描述(shu)】铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)(xing)业(ye)是机械(xie)工业(ye)的(de)耗(hao)(hao)能(neng)大(da)户,能(neng)耗(hao)(hao)高、能(neng)源(yuan)利(li)用(yong)率低、污染(ran)严重、经济效益差制约(yue)(yue)了(le)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)(xing)业(ye)的(de)发展(zhan)(zhan)。合理使用(yong)能(neng)源(yuan),大(da)力抓(zhua)好(hao)节(jie)约(yue)(yue)能(neng)源(yuan)是铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)(xing)业(ye)的(de)一项重要任务。本文分(fen)析了(le)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)(xing)业(ye)能(neng)源(yuan)利(li)用(yong)现状,从熔炼、加热系统、造(zao)型制芯技术(shu)(shu)与(yu)装(zhuang)备、低应(ying)力铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)铁(tie)、铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)态球(qiu)墨铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)铁(tie)、球(qiu)铁(tie)无冒口铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)、铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)钢(gang)保(bao)温冒口与(yu)保(bao)温补贴、冲(chong)天炉废气综(zong)合利(li)用(yong)和佘热回收利(li)用(yong)等方面(mian)阐述了(le)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)(xing)业(ye)行(xing)(xing)之(zhi)有效的(de)主要节(jie)能(neng)技术(shu)(shu)及其应(ying)用(yong),并对发展(zhan)(zhan)我国铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)节(jie)能(neng)技术(shu)(shu)提出几

国内铸造业节能技术应用及发展建议

【概要描(miao)述】铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行业(ye)是机(ji)械工业(ye)的耗(hao)能(neng)(neng)大户,能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)高、能(neng)(neng)源利(li)用(yong)率低、污染严重、经济效(xiao)益差制约了铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行业(ye)的发展(zhan)。合(he)理使用(yong)能(neng)(neng)源,大力抓(zhua)好节约能(neng)(neng)源是铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行业(ye)的一项重要任务。本文分析(xi)了铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行业(ye)能(neng)(neng)源利(li)用(yong)现(xian)状,从熔炼、加热系统(tong)、造(zao)(zao)型制芯(xin)技(ji)术与(yu)装备、低应(ying)力铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)铁(tie)、铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)态球(qiu)墨(mo)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)铁(tie)、球(qiu)铁(tie)无冒(mao)口铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)、铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)钢保温冒(mao)口与(yu)保温补(bu)贴、冲天炉废气综合(he)利(li)用(yong)和(he)佘热回收利(li)用(yong)等方面阐述(shu)了铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行业(ye)行之(zhi)有(you)效(xiao)的主要节能(neng)(neng)技(ji)术及其应(ying)用(yong),并对发展(zhan)我国铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)节能(neng)(neng)技(ji)术提(ti)出几

  • 分类(lei):知识学堂
  • 作者:
  • 来源:
  • 发布时(shi)间:2020-05-21
  • 访问(wen)量:0
详情

  铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)是机械工业(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)耗能(neng)大(da)户,能(neng)耗高、能(neng)源(yuan)利(li)用率低、污染严重、经(jing)济效益差制约了铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)发展。合理使用能(neng)源(yuan),大(da)力抓好节约能(neng)源(yuan)是铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)一项重要任务。本(ben)文分析了铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)源(yuan)利(li)用现状,从(cong)熔(rong)炼、加(jia)热系(xi)统、造(zao)(zao)型(xing)制芯技术(shu)(shu)与装备、低应(ying)力铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)铁、铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)态(tai)球墨铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)铁、球铁无冒(mao)口铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)、铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)钢(gang)保(bao)温冒(mao)口与保(bao)温补贴、冲天炉废气(qi)综合利(li)用和佘热回收利(li)用等方面阐述了铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)行(xing)之有效的(de)(de)(de)主要节能(neng)技术(shu)(shu)及其(qi)应(ying)用,并(bing)对(dui)发展我国(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)节能(neng)技术(shu)(shu)提(ti)出几(ji)点(dian)措(cuo)施建议。

  1.问题(ti)的(de)(de)提(ti)出能源(yuan)是(shi)一种(zhong)重要的(de)(de)地球资源(yuan),是(shi)人类社会发(fa)展的(de)(de)物惯(guan)基础(chu)。能源(yuan)资源(yuan)问题(ti)是(shi)关系我国经济(ji)社会发(fa)展全局的(de)(de)一个重大战略问题(ti)。能源(yuan)供(gong)应和利用状况(kuang)直接关系到(dao)国民经济(ji)的(de)(de)持(chi)续、稳定、协(xie)调发(fa)展。开发(fa)、合理(li)有效地利用能源(yuan),既(ji)可(ke)保持(chi)社会的(de)(de)适度发(fa)展,又可(ke)减少资源(yuan)消耗。

  目前(qian)我(wo)(wo)们(men)所利用的(de)能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)主要(yao)是(shi)以煤(mei)、石油(you)、天然气等不(bu)可再生的(de)一次性(xing)能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan),用一点少一点,迟早有一天消(xiao)(xiao)耗殆尽。我(wo)(wo)国(guo)能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)资源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)从数(shu)量(liang)上看比较(jiao)丰富,但人均(jun)(jun)占有量(liang)远低(di)(di)于世界平(ping)均(jun)(jun)水平(ping),而且能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)利用率(lv)(lv)低(di)(di),其(qi)中煤(mei)利用率(lv)(lv)不(bu)到10%。据报(bao)导,我(wo)(wo)围(wei)GDP的(de)50%来源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)于高(gao)能(neng)耗。2003年我(wo)(wo)国(guo)GDP总(zong)量(liang)达11.58万(wan)(wan)亿(yi)元,消(xiao)(xiao)耗16亿(yi)吨(dun)煤(mei),2.5亿(yi)吨(dun)原油(you),2亿(yi)多(duo)吨(dun)钢材,8亿(yi)吨(dun)水泥。2004年我(wo)(wo)国(guo)GDP总(zong)量(liang)达l3.65万(wan)(wan)亿(yi)元,消(xiao)(xiao)耗能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)更多(duo)。

  我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)经(jing)济(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)增(zeng)长的(de)(de)(de)(de)成本(ben)高(gao)(gao)于世界平均水(shui)平25%以(yi)上,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)每创(chuang)造(zao)(zao)l美元(yuan)产值所消耗(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)是(shi)(shi)(shi)美国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)4.3倍(bei),德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)和(he)法国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)7.7倍(bei),日本(ben)的(de)(de)(de)(de)11.5倍(bei)。我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)传统的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)投(tou)入、高(gao)(gao)消耗(hao)、高(gao)(gao)成本(ben)、低产出的(de)(de)(de)(de)经(jing)济(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)增(zeng)长方式应彻底改变。我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)节(jie)约(yue)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)法规定(ding),“节(jie)能(neng)(neng)是(shi)(shi)(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家发(fa)(fa)展经(jing)济(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)项(xiang)长远战(zhan)略方针。”铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)是(shi)(shi)(shi)个(ge)高(gao)(gao)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye),除做好能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)开发(fa)(fa)、有效利用(yong)外,长期战(zhan)略任务就(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)大(da)力开展节(jie)能(neng)(neng)降耗(hao)工(gong)怍。2.铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)利用(yong)现状铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)在(zai)机(ji)械制造(zao)(zao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)占有十分重(zhong)要的(de)(de)(de)(de)地位,铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)技术(shu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)民经(jing)济(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)可持续发(fa)(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)体技术(shu)之一(yi),是(shi)(shi)(shi)机(ji)械产品毛(mao)坯的(de)(de)(de)(de)供(gong)应者。仅2003年(nian)就(jiu)(jiu)为(wei)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)民经(jing)济(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)各部门提供(gong)1987万(wan)吨铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)。但(dan)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)是(shi)(shi)(shi)一(yi)个(ge)大(da)量(liang)耗(hao)能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产过(guo)程(cheng),是(shi)(shi)(shi)个(ge)高(gao)(gao)投(tou)入、高(gao)(gao)消耗(hao)、高(gao)(gao)或本(ben)、低产出的(de)(de)(de)(de)既传统又不(bu)可缺少的(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)。仅2004年(nian),我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)就(jiu)(jiu)消耗(hao)焦炭300万(wan)吨,生(sheng)(sheng)铁1000万(wan)吨,新砂(sha)1000万(wan)吨,各种粘结剂30—40万(wan)吨。近些(xie)年(nian)来,由(you)于我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)取得长足(zu)发(fa)(fa)展,铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)产量(liang)是(shi)(shi)(shi)以(yi)牺牲环境保护、浪费能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)和(he)材(cai)料为(wei)代价。在(zai)我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)生(sheng)(sheng)产中(zhong)(zhong),能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)和(he)材(cai)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)投(tou)人约(yue)占其(qi)产值的(de)(de)(de)(de)55%-70%。是(shi)(shi)(shi)机(ji)械工(gong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)耗(hao)能(neng)(neng)大(da)户,其(qi)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)占机(ji)械工(gong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)总(zong)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)23%-62%,能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)利用(yong)率为(wei)l5%-25%。我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)每吨铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)所需能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)是(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)(fa)达(da)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家的(de)(de)(de)(de)2—3倍(bei)。

  我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)每(mei)生产(chan)(chan)1吨(dun)(dun)(dun)合格铸(zhu)(zhu)铁件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)能耗(hao)(hao)为(wei)500-700kg标(biao)煤,占(zhan)(zhan)生产(chan)(chan)成本(ben)的(de)(de)15%,而日本(ben)每(mei)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)铸(zhu)(zhu)铁件(jian)(jian)能耗(hao)(hao)仅占(zhan)(zhan)生产(chan)(chan)成本(ben)4.3%。我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)每(mei)生产(chan)(chan)1吨(dun)(dun)(dun)合格铸(zhu)(zhu)钢(gang)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)能耗(hao)(hao)为(wei)800-1000kg标(biao)煤,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)仅为(wei)500-800kg标(biao)煤。造(zao)(zao)成我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)能耗(hao)(hao)高(gao)的(de)(de)主(zhu)要原(yuan)因是多方面的(de)(de)。2.1经济规(gui)模(mo)差专(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)化(hua)程度(du)低我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)现(xian)有(you)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)厂(chang)点(dian)约(yue)(yue)2.2万(wan)个,点(dian)多规(gui)模(mo)小(xiao),专(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)化(hua)程度(du)低。按2003年(nian)(nian)我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)总量1987万(wan)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)计,平均(jun)每(mei)一(yi)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)产(chan)(chan)量不(bu)足1000吨(dun)(dun)(dun),其中(zhong)300吨(dun)(dun)(dun)以下企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)约(yue)(yue)占(zhan)(zhan)1/3,年(nian)(nian)产(chan)(chan)300-5000吨(dun)(dun)(dun)的(de)(de)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)占(zhan)(zhan)l/2以上(shang),年(nian)(nian)产(chan)(chan)5000吨(dun)(dun)(dun)以上(shang)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)只占(zhan)(zhan)l/6,年(nian)(nian)产(chan)(chan)万(wan)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)以上(shang)的(de)(de)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)约(yue)(yue)占(zhan)(zhan)1%。工(gong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)达(da)(da)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家的(de)(de)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)一(yi)般(ban)规(gui)模(mo)都在5000吨(dun)(dun)(dun)以上(shang),万(wan)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)以上(shang)的(de)(de)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)所占(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)比例很(hen)大(da),还(hai)有(you)10万(wan)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)甚至60万(wan)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)的(de)(de)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)。我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)专(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)化(hua)程度(du)只有(you)30%,工(gong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)达(da)(da)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家达(da)(da)80%-90%。不(bu)难(nan)看出,我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)有(you)上(shang)万(wan)家铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)生产(chan)(chan)规(gui)模(mo)在几(ji)百吨(dun)(dun)(dun),而且还(hai)有(you)相当多的(de)(de)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)是“大(da)而全”,“小(xiao)而全”,没有(you)形(xing)成技(ji)术(shu)特(te)色(se)、产(chan)(chan)品(pin)特(te)色(se),设备配置不(bu)合理,利用率低,大(da)马拉小(xiao)车现(xian)象普遍存在,造(zao)(zao)成能源损失大(da)。2.2铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)艺技(ji)术(shu)装备等(deng)基础(chu)条件(jian)(jian)差我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)(zao)生产(chan)(chan)过程和检(jian)测手段不(bu)够完善(shan)是造(zao)(zao)成能耗(hao)(hao)高(gao)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要原(yuan)因之一(yi)。

  (1)熔(rong)(rong)炼在铸(zhu)造(zao)生(sheng)产中(zhong),用(yong)于熔(rong)(rong)炼的(de)(de)能耗(hao)约占整(zheng)个(ge)铸(zhu)件生(sheng)产能耗(hao)的(de)(de)50%。熔(rong)(rong)炼铸(zhu)铁(tie)时(shi),工业(ye)发(fa)(fa)达国(guo)家(jia)大多(duo)数(shu)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)热(re)风(feng)连续作业(ye)的(de)(de)长(zhang)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)龄(ling)冲天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu),而我(wo)国(guo)只(zhi)有(you)(you)(you)少数(shu)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)长(zhang)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)龄(ling)热(re)风(feng)冲天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)。大多(duo)数(shu)冲天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)只(zhi)开(kai)4-8h就(jiu)打(da)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu),造(zao)成炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)体蓄(xu)热(re)损(sun)失(约占熔(rong)(rong)化能耗(hao)10%以上)和打(da)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)底焦的(de)(de)热(re)损(sun)失。铁(tie)水(shui)温度(du)普(pu)遍在1380℃-1450℃(国(guo)外为1500℃一(yi)(yi)(yi)1550℃)。熔(rong)(rong)炼铸(zhu)钢时(shi),工业(ye)发(fa)(fa)达国(guo)家(jia)在冶炼合(he)金钢时(shi)多(duo)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)AOD、VOD设备,我(wo)国(guo)只(zhi)有(you)(you)(you)少数(shu)厂家(jia)采(cai)(cai)用(yong),大多(duo)数(shu)仍采(cai)(cai)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)弧(hu)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)生(sheng)产方式。有(you)(you)(you)时(shi)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)由(you)于电(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)供(gong)应不(bu)足,采(cai)(cai)取夜间(jian)低(di)谷用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian),每(mei)次只(zhi)能开(kai)4—5炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)次就(jiu)停炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)。每(mei)新开(kai)一(yi)(yi)(yi)次炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)就(jiu)增加一(yi)(yi)(yi)次炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)体的(de)(de)蓄(xu)热(re)损(sun)失。一(yi)(yi)(yi)般(ban)(ban)第一(yi)(yi)(yi)次炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)钢水(shui)的(de)(de)耗(hao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)量在1000-1200kWh/t钢液(ye),从第三炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)开(kai)始耗(hao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)量一(yi)(yi)(yi)般(ban)(ban)都低(di)于800kWh/t钢液(ye),如果每(mei)一(yi)(yi)(yi)次开(kai)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)的(de)(de)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)次越少,平均每(mei)吨钢水(shui)耗(hao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)量就(jiu)相应增高。熔(rong)(rong)炼有(you)(you)(you)色合(he)金时(shi),国(guo)外采(cai)(cai)用(yong)工频感应电(dian)(dian)(dian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)熔(rong)(rong)炼,热(re)效率(lv)达45%,我(wo)国(guo)有(you)(you)(you)不(bu)少企(qi)(qi)业(ye)在采(cai)(cai)用(yong)燃油坩埚炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)、焦炭坩埚炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)或(huo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)阻炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu),这(zhei)些(xie)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)子(zi)的(de)(de)热(re)效率(lv)低(di),分别为l1%、3%-7%、25%。

  (2)造(zao)型(xing)(xing)(xing)、制(zhi)(zhi)芯(xin)国(guo)内(nei)除少数为(wei)汽车、内(nei)燃机配套的(de)(de)铸(zhu)造(zao)骨干企(qi)业采用高密(mi)度的(de)(de)高压(ya)、静压(ya)、射压(ya)、气冲造(zao)型(xing)(xing)(xing)等(deng)先进高效流(liu)水(shui)线造(zao)型(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)树脂砂(sha)热芯(xin)盒、冷芯(xin)盒制(zhi)(zhi)芯(xin)工(gong)艺外,大多数铸(zhu)造(zao)企(qi)业仍采用震压(ya)式造(zao)型(xing)(xing)(xing)机造(zao)型(xing)(xing)(xing)或手工(gong)造(zao)型(xing)(xing)(xing)或粘土干型(xing)(xing)(xing)、水(shui)玻(bo)璃(li)砂(sha)工(gong)艺和(he)(he)以桐油、合脂、粘土等(deng)粘结剂(ji)为(wei)主(zhu)的(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)芯(xin)工(gong)艺,生产周期长(zhang),能耗高。

  (3)工(gong)(gong)艺设计(ji)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)普(pu)遍采用(yong)(yong)CAD/CAM,而我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)除少数(shu)企业(ye)(ye)外(wai)(wai)(wai),多数(shu)凭工(gong)(gong)艺员经(jing)验设计(ji),铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)浇(jiao)(jiao)冒口大(da),肥(fei)头大(da)耳,加工(gong)(gong)余量大(da),铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)超重(zhong)(zhong)超厚(hou)(hou)现象(xiang)普(pu)遍存(cun)在。我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)尺寸精(jing)度比(bi)(bi)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)普(pu)遍低1-2级(ji),表面(mian)粗(cu)糙(cao)度比(bi)(bi)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)差l-2级(ji),加工(gong)(gong)余量比(bi)(bi)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)高(gao)出1倍以上,铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)壁厚(hou)(hou)也(ye)比(bi)(bi)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)厚(hou)(hou)得(de)多。铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)废(fei)(fei)品(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)也(ye)比(bi)(bi)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)高(gao)得(de)多,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)铁件(jian)(jian)废(fei)(fei)品(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)通常为(wei)9%-15%,铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)钢(gang)件(jian)(jian)废(fei)(fei)品(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)为(wei)5%一l5%,而国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)的铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)铁件(jian)(jian)和铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)钢(gang)件(jian)(jian)的废(fei)(fei)品(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)均(jun)低于(yu)5%。由此可见,铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)浇(jiao)(jiao)冒口大(da),铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)超重(zhong)(zhong)超厚(hou)(hou),铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)尺寸精(jing)度低,表面(mian)粗(cu)糙(cao),铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)件(jian)(jian)废(fei)(fei)品(pin)(pin)(pin)率(lv)高(gao)都直接(jie)或间(jian)接(jie)加大(da)了(le)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)消(xiao)耗(hao)。2.3缺乏(fa)(fa)科学管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)长期以来,由于(yu)普(pu)遍存(cun)在重(zhong)(zhong)冷(leng)轻热思想,铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)一直不(bu)(bu)被(bei)重(zhong)(zhong)视(shi)。政府(fu)有关部门未(wei)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)对铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)的能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)合理(li)(li)利用(yong)(yong)和节(jie)约进(jin)行(xing)全面(mian)规划(hua)和政策引(yin)导。铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)的能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)体(ti)系(xi)尚未(wei)健全完善(shan),节(jie)约能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)的法规和标准化体(ti)系(xi)也(ye)尚未(wei)建立(li)。不(bu)(bu)少铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)企业(ye)(ye)的领导对能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)的管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)缺乏(fa)(fa)足够重(zhong)(zhong)视(shi)。节(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)工(gong)(gong)作尚未(wei)提到议(yi)事日程(cheng)上来,既没有建立(li)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)机(ji)构,又没有从事能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)、节(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)技术推广的专门管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)人员。只(zhi)(zhi)重(zhong)(zhong)产(chan)值,不(bu)(bu)计(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)耗(hao),只(zhi)(zhi)重(zhong)(zhong)使用(yong)(yong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan),忽视(shi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)节(jie)约,从而造(zao)成了(le)铸(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)耗(hao)高(gao)、能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)浪费(fei)的局面(mian)。

  3.铸造(zao)(zao)生(sheng)产的节能(neng)技术(shu)与节能(neng)措施经过(guo)我(wo)国铸造(zao)(zao)工(gong)作(zuo)者长期不懈的努力,取得了一系(xi)列(lie)铸造(zao)(zao)生(sheng)产的节能(neng)技术(shu)与节能(neng)措施,这些节能(neng)技术(shu)仍具有(you)现(xian)实(shi)的适(shi)用价值,值得推广应用。

  3.1以(yi)熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)为中心的(de)(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)技术铸(zhu)(zhu)件熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)部分(fen)(fen)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)耗(hao)约占铸(zhu)(zhu)件生产(chan)总能(neng)耗(hao)的(de)(de)(de)50%,由于熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)原因而造成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)铸(zhu)(zhu)件废(fei)品(pin)(pin)约占总废(fei)品(pin)(pin)的(de)(de)(de)50%。因此,采(cai)用(yong)(yong)先进适用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)设备和熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)工艺是(shi)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)的(de)(de)(de)主要措(cuo)(cuo)施。3.1.1铸(zhu)(zhu)铁熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)的(de)(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)技术(1)推广采(cai)用(yong)(yong)热(re)风、水冷、连续(xu)作(zuo)(zuo)业长炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)龄(ling)冲(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)冲(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)向大型(xing)化、长时间连续(xu)作(zuo)(zuo)业方向发展是(shi)必然(ran)趋势。国(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)铸(zhu)(zhu)造企(qi)业把它作(zuo)(zuo)为一(yi)项重要节(jie)(jie)能(neng)措(cuo)(cuo)施加以(yi)应用(yong)(yong)。近(jin)些年(nian)来,国(guo)内也在这(zhei)方面做了(le)大量的(de)(de)(de)工作(zuo)(zuo),已有部分(fen)(fen)企(qi)业采(cai)用(yong)(yong),取得(de)了(le)明显(xian)的(de)(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)效果。例如(ru),采(cai)用(yong)(yong)大排距(ju)双层(ceng)送风冲(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)技术,可节(jie)(jie)约焦(jiao)炭20%-30%,降低(di)废(fei)品(pin)(pin)率5%,Si、Mn烧损分(fen)(fen)别(bie)降低(di)5%-10%;水冷无(wu)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)衬和薄炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)衬冲(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu),连续(xu)作(zuo)(zuo)业时间长,可节(jie)(jie)能(neng)30%以(yi)上;热(re)风冲(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)既节(jie)(jie)能(neng)又(you)环保。(2)推广冲(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)一(yi)电(dian)(dian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)双联熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)工艺冲(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)一(yi)电(dian)(dian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)双联熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)是(shi)利用(yong)(yong)冲(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)预(yu)热(re)、熔(rong)(rong)化效率高和感应电(dian)(dian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)过热(re)效率高的(de)(de)(de)优(you)点,来提高铁液质(zhi)量,达到降低(di)能(neng)耗(hao)的(de)(de)(de)目的(de)(de)(de)。近(jin)些年(nian)来,随(sui)着焦(jiao)炭、生铁等(deng)原材料价(jia)格大幅上扬和铸(zhu)(zhu)件品(pin)(pin)质(zhi)要求(qiu)越来越高,单独使用(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)熔(rong)(rong)炼(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)日益(yi)增多(duo),利用(yong)(yong)夜间低(di)谷电(dian)(dian)生产(chan),也取得(de)了(le)较好的(de)(de)(de)经济效益(yi)和节(jie)(jie)能(neng)效果。

  (3)推广(guang)(guang)应(ying)(ying)用(yong)(yong)(yong)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)焦(jiao)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)炼(lian)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)焦(jiao)燃料(liao)是提高(gao)(gao)铁液(ye)(ye)温(wen)(wen)度(du)和(he)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)有效(xiao)途径。国外大多数(shu)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)炼(lian)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)焦(jiao)。由于(yu)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)焦(jiao)价格高(gao)(gao)或(huo)是由   于(yu)习惯等(deng)原因(yin)至今国内大多数(shu)企业仍(reng)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)冶(ye)金(jin)(jin)焦(jiao),甚至有的(de)(de)(de)企业使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)土焦(jiao),这(zhei)不(bu)仅(jin)影响铸(zhu)(zhu)件质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang),而(er)且焦(jiao)耗量(liang)(liang)(liang)大。如应(ying)(ying)用(yong)(yong)(yong)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)焦(jiao),废品率(lv)可下降2%。因(yin)此,发展铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)焦(jiao)生(sheng)(sheng)产,降低(di)(di)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)焦(jiao)生(sheng)(sheng)产成本(ben),推广(guang)(guang)应(ying)(ying)用(yong)(yong)(yong)铸(zhu)(zhu)造(zao)焦(jiao)是提高(gao)(gao)铸(zhu)(zhu)件质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang),降低(di)(di)能(neng)(neng)(neng)源消耗的(de)(de)(de)措施(shi)之一。(4)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)富(fu)氧、除(chu)湿送风(feng)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)冶(ye)金(jin)(jin)焦(jiao)时,铁液(ye)(ye)温(wen)(wen)度(du)很难稳(wen)定(ding)达(da)到1500℃,如采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)3%的(de)(de)(de)富(fu)氧送风(feng)就能(neng)(neng)(neng)保证,并且每(mei)吨铁液(ye)(ye)可净降低(di)(di)能(neng)(neng)(neng)耗l0kg左(zuo)右标(biao)煤。冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)除(chu)湿送风(feng)通常(chang)在(zai)南方潮湿地区使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong),它可以提高(gao)(gao)铁液(ye)(ye)温(wen)(wen)度(du),减少(shao)硅、锰等(deng)元素的(de)(de)(de)烧损,提高(gao)(gao)铁液(ye)(ye)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)化率(lv),降低(di)(di)焦(jiao)耗13%-17%。(5)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)控制技术冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)控制包含计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)配料(liao)、炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)料(liao)自动称(cheng)量(liang)(liang)(liang)定(ding)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)化过程的(de)(de)(de)自动化控制。使(shi)(shi)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)处在(zai)优化状态下工作(zuo),可获得高(gao)(gao)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)铁液(ye)(ye)和(he)合适的(de)(de)(de)铁液(ye)(ye)温(wen)(wen)度(du)。与(yu)手工控制相比(bi),可节(jie)约焦(jiao)炭(tan)10%-15%。(6)推广(guang)(guang)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)专(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)高(gao)(gao)压(ya)离心(xin)节(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)风(feng)机(ji)(ji)目前国内仍(reng)有不(bu)少(shao)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)罗茨或(huo)叶氏(shi)容(rong)积式(shi)风(feng)机(ji)(ji),能(neng)(neng)(neng)耗大噪声(sheng)高(gao)(gao)。采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)天(tian)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)专(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)压(ya)离心(xin)风(feng)机(ji)(ji),可节(jie)电50%-60%,熔(rong)(rong)(rong)化率(lv)提高(gao)(gao)33%左(zuo)右。3.1.2铸(zhu)(zhu)钢熔(rong)(rong)(rong)炼(lian)的(de)(de)(de)节(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)技术目前国内仍(reng)有不(bu)少(shao)企业采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)燃油坩(gan)埚炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)和(he)焦(jiao)炭(tan)坩(gan)埚炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)炼(lian)有色金(jin)(jin)属,这(zhei)两种熔(rong)(rong)(rong)炼(lian)设备不(bu)仅(jin)效(xiao)率(lv)低(di)(di),而(er)且造(zao)成环境污染,应(ying)(ying)尽(jin)快(kuai)淘汰,代(dai)之采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)热效(xiao)率(lv)高(gao)(gao)、作(zuo)业环境好、熔(rong)(rong)(rong)炼(lian)金(jin)(jin)属液(ye)(ye)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)(de)感(gan)应(ying)(ying)电炉(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)熔(rong)(rong)(rong)炼(lian)。

扫二维码用手机看

返回列表

联系我们

联系电话:宋先生  代女士

公司邮箱:

公司地址: 四(si)川攀枝花钒钛高新技术产业园区钛源大道18号(hao)

风云体育

微信公众号

 

 

Copyright © 2020 风云体育 . All rights reserved.       

搜(sou)索